Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is induced by 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, a by-product of n-3 fatty acid peroxidation

Abstract : Aims/hypothesis Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its progression towards type 2 diabetes. The peroxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids produces 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid aldehyde with potent electrophilic properties able to interfere with many pathophysiological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 4-HHE in the development of insulin resistance. Methods 4-HHE concentration was measured in plasma from humans and rats by GC-MS. Insulin resistance was estimated in healthy rats after administration of 4-HHE using hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps. In muscle cells, glucose uptake was measured using 2-deoxy-D-glucose and signalling pathways were investigated by western blotting. Intracellular glutathione was measured using a fluorimetric assay kit and boosted using 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T). Results Circulating levels of 4-HHE in type 2 diabetic humans and a rat model of diabetes (obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats), were twice those in their non-diabetic counterparts (33 vs 14 nmol/l, p < 0.001), and positively correlated with blood glucose levels. During hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps in rats, acute intravenous injection of 4-HHE significantly altered whole-body insulin sensitivity and decreased glucose infusion rate (24.2 vs 9.9 mg kg −1 min −1 , p < 0.001). In vitro, 4-HHE impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and signalling (protein kinase B/Akt and IRS1) in L6 muscle cells. Insulin-induced glucose uptake was reduced from 186 to 141.9 pmol mg −1 min −1 (p < 0.05). 4-HHE induced carbonylation of cell proteins and reduced glutathione concentration from 6.3 to 4.5 nmol/mg protein. Increasing intracellular glutathione pools using D3T prevented 4-HHE-induced carbonyl stress and insulin resistance. Conclusions/interpretation 4-HHE is produced in type 2 diabetic humans and Zucker diabetic fatty rats and blunts insulin action in skeletal muscle. 4-HHE therefore plays a causal role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and might constitute a potential therapeutic target to taper oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance.
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Christophe Soulage, Laura Puig, Laurent Soulère, Bader Zarrouki, Michel Guichardant, et al.. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is induced by 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, a by-product of n-3 fatty acid peroxidation. Diabetologia, Springer Verlag, 2018, 61 (3), pp.688-699. ⟨10.1007/s00125-017-4528-4⟩. ⟨hal-02110460⟩

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