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Deployment and Scheduling of Wireless Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Monitoring

Ahmed Boubrima 1
1 AGORA - ALGorithmes et Optimisation pour Réseaux Autonomes
CITI - CITI Centre of Innovation in Telecommunications and Integration of services, Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes
Abstract : Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are widely used in environmental applications where the aim is to sense a physical phenomenon such as temperature, humidity, air pollution, etc. In this context of application, the use of WSN allows to understand the variations of the phenomenon over the monitoring region and therefore be able to make adequate decisions regarding the impact of the phenomenon. Due to the limitations of its traditional costly monitoring methods in addition to its high spatial and temporal variability, air pollution is considered as one of the main physical phenomena that still need to be studied and characterized. In this thesis, we consider three main applications regarding the use of WSN for air pollution monitoring: 1) the construction of real-time air quality maps using sensor measurements; 2) the detection of pollution threshold crossings; and 3) the correction of physical models that simulate the pollution dispersion phenomenon. All these applications need careful deployment and scheduling of sensors in order to get a better knowledge of air pollution while ensuring a minimal deployment cost and a maximal lifetime of the deployed sensor network. Our aim is to tackle the problems of WSN deployment and scheduling while considering the specific characteristics of the air pollution phenomenon. We propose for each application case a new efficient approach for the deployment of sensor and sink nodes. We also propose a WSN scheduling approach that is adapted to the case of physical models’ correction. Our optimization approaches take into account the physical nature of air pollution dispersion and incorporate real data provided by the existing pollution sensing platforms. As part of each approach, we use integer linear programming to derive optimization models that are well adapted to solving small and medium instances. To deal with large instances, we propose heuristic algorithms while using linear relaxation techniques. Besides our theoretical works on air pollution monitoring, we design from scratch and deploy in the Lyon city a cost-effective energy-efficient air pollution sensor network. Based on the characteristics of our monitoring system in addition to real-world air pollution datasets, we evaluate the effectiveness of our deployment and scheduling approaches and provide engineering insights for the design of WSN-based air pollution monitoring systems. Among our conclusions, we highlight the fact that the size of the optimal sensor network depends on the degree of the variations of pollution concentrations within the monitoring region.
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Ahmed Boubrima. Deployment and Scheduling of Wireless Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Monitoring. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Insa Lyon, 2019. English. ⟨tel-02446568⟩

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