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Influence de la pré-imprégnation sur le comportement mécanique des composites verre-matrice ettringitique : étude expérimentale et numérique

Abstract : In recent years, mineral matrix composites have gained great interest in the field of civil engineering, thanks to their multiple advantages such as high tensile strength, pseudo-ductile behavior, ease of implementation, non-toxicity and substrate compatibility. However, the efficiency of these composites is often limited because of the low adhesion of the reinforcement to the matrix. This is due to the low penetrability of matrix particles into the space between the inner filaments of the yarn, which leads to premature failure of the material. The purpose of this work is to improve the yarn-matrix adhesion by pre-impregnating the reinforcement in order to optimize the mechanical behavior of composites. Two pre-impregnation methods were used : conventional pre-impregnation in a wet manner and pre-impregnation in a dry manner. This last is based on an alternating electrostatic field used to impregnate yarns with powder. The first method has already been used in the literature and has improved the mechanical properties of the composite. However, it is suited only for the manufacturing of simple prefabricated elements, unlike the second method, which can be applied for the construction of large elements, or for strengthening or repairing structures in site. This study is based on a multi-scale analysis to investigate the bond problem at the interface scale (yarn-matrix) and at the composite scale (yarn-matrix and textile-matrix). First, pull-out tests were conducted on glass yarns embedded in an ettringitic matrix. Eight configurations were studied to evaluate the effect of the pre-impregnation process and the type of dry pre-impregnation powders. It results that the pull-out behavior is improved by pre-impregnating the yarn in wet and dry manner but, it should be noted that in dry process, the improvement is significant only when using very fine particle powders. A numerical modeling of the pull-out test was also carried out in order to identify the yarn-matrix interface properties. Based on these results, an experimental and numerical study of the tensile behavior of yarn-matrix composites was then carried out. Five configurations were selected, after excluding the yarn pre-treatments that had a negative effect on the yarn-matrix bond. It was found that both processes contribute to a significant increase in the mechanical properties of the composite. In addition, a 3D numerical model has been developed to simulate the tensile test of a dry and pre-impregnated composite. It allowed on the one hand to predict the global behavior of the material and on the other hand to provide a better understanding of this behavior by analyzing the deformation and stress states at the level of the yarn, the matrix and the interface. Finally, a comparison of the effect of the two pre-impregnation processes was established at the textile-matrix composite scale by means of tensile tests and image correlation analysis. Five different types of unidirectional glass fabric were used. The dry pre-impregnation has shown the best improvement in composite performance regardless of fabric density, unlike the wet pre-impregnation, which has its limits when the textile becomes dense
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Omayma Homoro. Influence de la pré-imprégnation sur le comportement mécanique des composites verre-matrice ettringitique : étude expérimentale et numérique. Génie civil. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1239⟩. ⟨tel-02447566⟩

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